Diabetes mellitus (DM) or commonly called diabetes is a metabolic disease with characteristic of hyperglycemia (high blood sugar levels). Normally, the food we eat will be metabolized by the body into glucose that used for energy. Insulin is a hormone that produced by the pancreas, are used to help glucose get into the cells of the body.
If you have diabetes, your body does not make enough insulin or the insulin does not work as it should. This causes an increase in blood sugar levels.
Diabetes can lead into serious health complications and fatal, such as heart disease, blindness, kidney failure, amputation, and death. This disease can affect anyone, especially those who have a high risk.
What are the risk factors for diabetes mellitus? There are following explanation:
- Risk factors that can’t be modified:
- Race / ethnicity (Race Asian, Indian American, Hispanic, have an increased risk of diabetes mellitus is greater).
- Family history of diabetes
- Age (The risk of diabetes increases with age. If you are aged; 45 years, should check blood sugar levels).
- A history of having a baby with birth weight; 4000 g or have had diabetes during pregnancy (gestational diabetes)
- A history of low birth weight (<2.5 kg)
- Risk factors that can be modified:
- overweight/ Overweight (body mass index; 23kg / m2)
- Less physical activity
- Hypertension (BP; 140/90 mm Hg)
- Dyslipidemia or abnormal cholesterol levels (HDL dL, triglycerides; 250 mg / dL)
- Unhealthy diet
- Foods high in sugar and low in fiber will increase the risk of diabetes mellitus
- Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS)
- In women, characterized by the presence of irregular periods, hair growth that many (mustache, hair in arms, etc.), and obesity.
Diabetes mellitus is a disease that can be prevented. Identify your risk factors immediately. If you have a few of risk factors that have been mentioned, please check your blood sugar levels regularly to prevent diabetes disease. You also need to do a healthy diet, regular exercise, stopping smoking, and controlling the underlying disease (hypertension, cholesterol, PCO).